Surface dating methods

All A basic characteristic of the surface dating is securing samples were fully bleached up to 5mm depth. An example of bleaching for different hours is given Measurements on luminescence on granite surfaces in Fig. The sample acquisition was made by gently removing powder with a file.

During a 2 hr daylight transmission, bleaching as a function of Table 1. SOL bleaching, residual TL and exposure times for Thassos depth increased and reached a plateau at around 1. Dragon house at Kapsala, Greece.

Historical Geology/Cosmogenic surface dating - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Marble schist surface con- Fig. Thus, during a 60 s exposure, the relative contribution of deeper layers did not increase significantly after the first mm. The results reveal an almost complete bleaching to a depth, D, of at least 2 mm after at least 20 min of exposure to daylight.

And for 2 min exposure the residual signal starts at 0. This needs to be tested with the preheat-dose plateau test Liritzis et al.

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In the case of quartz, deconvolution of slow and fast components and calculation of De based on them may also identify incomplete bleach- ing Liritzis et al. Alternative ways for e Fig. TL bleaching versus sun exposure for different marble thick- Fig.

Daylight transmission in marble slabs of different thicknesses nesses a surface 0 mm , b 2 mm, c 4 mm, d 8 mm and e 16 mm and three sun exposure times. Arrows indicate onset of saturation Liritzis and Galloway, Liritzis and Galloway, Bleaching rates of luminescence by blue filled circles and IR open circles shining of 1 mm slices of ultramafic a , granite b and metamor- phic c rocks exposed to winter daylight for different periods of time before measuring the dose using SAR protocol.

Fit functions are chosen to present modulation of apparent doses from Vafiadou et al. De determination include the use of the unstable lu- 4 Dose-rate errors especially due to potassium distribu- minescence as described by Liritzis Howev- tion and U, Th inhomogeneity, pronounced in gran- er, this has not yet been employed routinely. The identifi- 5 Desert varnish effects and other secondary adhesions cation of mineral present can be made by XRD, while on rock surface may be avoided by proper selection quartz and feldspar are also identified by probing with IR or removed by weak acid wash.

Gamma-ray dose-rate is most nescence by light during sampling of a building or important. Use of multiple methods for dose rate es- sampling later repairs. If a meticulous examination is required and, steps such as e. A safer procedure is to divide the inner block surface into several sub-areas and in this way a geo- logical De derived from unrecognizable accidentally rubbed surface parts during last placement are easily pinpointed and excluded Fig.

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Daylight penetration to limestone, quartz and granite, sandstone blocks bleaches the geological luminescence up to varia- ble depths, ranging from 1 mm to several mm depending on the opaqueness and daylight exposure duration. De- tailed investigations have shown that the surface lumines- cence dating of megalithic monuments and artifacts refers to the construction age of the masonry or last use of them followed by burial by soil.

As such luminescence directly dates the construction events using its contents. Lumines- cence is the only direct method of dating buildings as all other dating approaches use materials found within them, which may not be related to the first construction. Archi- tectural and contextual ages from these methods, though precise, may not be reliable due to doubtful attributions.

Analysis of several aliquots of surface sub-samples may Fig. Radial plots for equivalent dose measurements from three samples from Sweden and Mykonos, Greece triangles and the ac- Fig. Schematic representation of a sample removed from a wall cepted results encircled on the dark linear belt Vafiadou et al.

Liritzis help distinguish between recent bleaching, geological Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. The significance of gamma self-dose and beta-ranges multi-modal plot.

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Application to various parts of the in ceramics revisited. Some aspects of radiation survey in will be made in the years to come.

Absolute dating methods (ANT)

Annales Geologiques Des Pays Helleniques 34 1: Liritzis I and Kokkoris M, Nuclear Geophysics 6 3: Academic Press, Lon- Liritzis I, b. An introduction to optical dating.


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Oxford University Liritzis I, Alternative determination of equivalent dose by green Press, Oxford: Development of single grain OSL dating of ceramic unstable luminescence. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear materials: Radi- Chemistry 1: Advances in thermo- and opto-luminescence dating of Spatially-resolved measurements of niques. Radiation Measurements 37 2: Treatment of error in plateau values- in calcitic rocks. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemis- caveat emptor.


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  • Ancient TL 7 2: Luminescence dating using single aliquots: Strofilas Andros island, Greece: Radiation Measurements, 24 3: A luminescence cal Science 37 6: Dating implications from daylight 27 2: Optical dating of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 2: Dating by luminescence of ancient 00 X. Stimulation of luminescence using green light try 5 1: Radiation Protection Dosimetry 47 Journal of um rock shelter, northern Australia: Daylight bleaching Greilich S, D Dissertation, University of search Section B 3: Greilich S and Wagner GA, M ceramics by green light stimulation of luminescence from quartz.

    Reidel and GA Wagner, eds. Spatially resolved Apollo Delphi strengthens novel thermoluminescence dating detection of luminescence: Optical dating of of ancient Helike, gulf of Corinth, Greece. Journal of Coastal Re- granitic stone surfaces. Steps OSL dating of three prehistoric ceramics from Theopetra Cave, towards surface dating using luminescence.

    First Rock Dating Experiment Performed on Mars

    Mediterranean Archaeology and Archae- ments 32 Huntley DJ and Richards M, Ancient TL 15 Deconvolution of optical from Egyptian Old Kingdom monuments. Journal of Cultural Her- stimulated luminescence decay curves. Journal of Radioanalytical itage 9 1: Probing luminescence dating of archaeologi- Kokkoris M and Liritzis I, Dose versus time for U-disequilibrium cally significant carved rock types.

    European Journal and Archaeometry 8 1: Mineralogical, Lefkowitz M, Archaeology and the politics of origins. Garrett petrological and radioactivity aspects of building material from G. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry10 3 , Measurements 32 1: The Chiemgau meteorite impact and tsunami event south- 27 2: Mediterranean Archaeology and Richards P, Luminescence dating of quartzite from Diring Yu- Archaeometry 10 4: New quartz approaches in extending the maximum age limit and accuracy of technique for the OSL dating of limestone. But there are other ways in which a rock can become exposed, as for example when a glacier erodes the sediment covering bedrock: In the article on radiocarbon dating we have already introduced one cosmogenic isotope , 14 C , which is produced by cosmic rays from 14 N.

    For cosmogenic surface dating, the two most commonly used isotopes are the cosmogenic isotopes 10 Be , which is produced from 16 O and which has a half-life of 1. Because the isotopes we're using have a short half-life , it follows that if a rock has been buried for a few million years the quantities of these isotopes will be negligible. But when the rock becomes exposed on the surface, and so exposed to cosmic rays, these cosmogenic isotopes will begin to accumulate in the rock. If we take all the relevant factors into account, and calculate, estimate, or simply measure the amount of cosmic rays a given rock is exposed to per year, and if we measure the quantities of the cosmogenic isotopes in a sample of the rock, then we can figure out how long the rock has been exposed.

    The quantity of the relevant isotopes in the rock will not simply grow without limit with longer and longer exposure to cosmic rays ; rather they will tend towards a maximum a secular equilibrium: In practice, we are not going to be able to tell the difference between a rock which has reached Consequently, the practical limit for the use of cosmogenic surface dating seems to be about 10 million years; after that, one old rock looks much like another.